Battle of Talas

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Pivotal or Overblown?

Some battles are seen as landmark moments; their result could be the catalyst for monumental change for centuries to come. The Battle of Talas in 751 is considered as one of those moments. Let’s explore why.

What happened?

In the years leading up to 751, both the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the Arab Umayyad Caliphate had both been expanding aggressively into Central Asia – rendering a collision inevitable. The region had already featured prominently in Islamic history because the Abbasid Revolution in the late 740’s, which replaced the Umayyads with the Abbasids, was centred around the province of Khorasan (modern-day western Afghanistan, north-eastern Iran and Uzbekistan). Other than serving the goals of an expansionist religious or political creed, Central Asia was super important because it was a nexus point for the lucrative Silk Road.

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The furthest extent of the Tang Dynasty.

The spark for the Abbasid-Tang conflict was provided by the local city-states. In 750, the King of Fergana had a border dispute with the ruler of neighbouring Chach. Fergana asked the Chinese for help, which was duly obliged by General Kao of the Chinese western army. Chach’s ruler was beheaded but his son escaped and sought refuge with the famous Abbasid General Abu Muslim Khorasani, who was keen on curbing Chinese influence in the region.

The Arab forces were joined by the Uighurs and the Tibetan Empire (which was a major regional power at the time).  The two sides met at Talas, in modern-day Kyrgyzstan. After five days of intense fighting, the Battle’s result was determined by the Karluks’ (Turkic nomadic tribe) defection from the Chinese to the Arab side, which consequently led to the destruction of the Chinese forces.

Aftermath

The reality of Talas’ consequences has been mixed with mythology in the popular imagination. For instance, it is claimed that the Muslim victory caused the Chinese to abandon Central Asia. This is simply not true. Even though the result of Talas was decisive and caused much damage to the Chinese army, only a few years after, in 755, the Tang dynasty recruited a large army to contest the influence of the Abbasids in the region. The plan was cut short by the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763), when the seditious Chinese General An Lushan declared himself Emperor of a new dynasty and marched on the imperial Chinese capital. In the ensuing conflict the An Lushan Rebellion was eventually put down but the imperial authority of the Tang would never properly recover, so much so that they no longer had the privilege of casting their sights on expansion but rather focus their efforts on the heartland of their realm. This is how the the Chinese came to lose what they called the ‘Western Regions’ (Central Asia).

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The Abbasid Caliphate (light green) at its height.

But Talas’ place in history is assured by the fact that it may have been impetus for bringing paper-making technology to the Middle East and on to Europe. Supposedly (there is historical debate on this) Chinese prisoners captured at the Battle of Talas shared their knowledge with their captors – the Chinese had been using paper for centuries whilst the rest of civilisation slacked behind with more primitive methods such as clay, papyrus and parchment. This theory is aided by the fact that there is documented evidence of these expert individuals, such as Tou Houan. In addition, paper manufacturing can be observed in the Middle East for the first time by the end of the eighth century, which resulted in the proliferation of texts produced in centres of learning such as Baghdad.

Conclusion

It seems that the Battle of Talas’ reputation as spelling the end of Chinese influence in the area was, at best, circumstantial due to the occurrence of the An Lushan Rebellion which happened only a few years later and was the real reason. Whilst Talas’ geopolitical ramifications may have been blown out of proportion, its significance in transmitting paper-making technology definitely warrants consideration as being a truly significant event in history.


Check out our YouTube video on the Battle of Talas!

 

Alhambra

 

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General view of the Alhambra

Biography

The magnificent palace-fortress complex of the Alhambra had very humble origins. A small fortress had existed in its place since at least as early as 889 AD and was most likely built on the site of Roman fortifications – the continuity of the site’s usage demonstrates its strategic location, being situated on top of a hill overlooking the city of Granada. It came to be known as ‘Qalat Al-Hamra’, or the ‘Red Fortress’, most likely due to the red bricks used in its construction.

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It fell into obscurity until the mid 11th century when Samuel ibn Naghrela (994-1056), a Jewish vizier to the Emir of Granada, reconstructed and made it his residence. Samuel was succeeded as vizier by his son Joseph who further expanded the fortress out of fear inspired by the rising anti-Semitism in the taifa of Granada (see 1066 Massacre of Granada). Ironically, when the Christian kingdoms completed the Reconquista* in 1492, the Edict of Expulsion, which forced the Jewish population of Spain to leave the country, was signed in 1492 in the Alhambra – the same place which owed at least part of its roots to Spanish Jewry. 

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The current shape of the Alhambra is owed to the rulers of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada who transformed it into a royal palace. From the mid-13th century onward the Alhambra was expanded and embellished to its current grandeur over the course of the next century and a half. These improvements included the famous Patio of the Lions, the Baths and extension of some of the towers.   

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Lion’s Courtyard

When Granada fell to the Catholic Monarchs, the Alhambra retained its place of prominence as it became the site of their royal residence and was even the place where Christopher Columbus received royal support for his expedition to the New World. Charles V, Emperor of the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, was keen to place a Christian imprint on this feat of Islamic architecture and decided to build a palace which required the removal of some aspects of the original complex. Although the palace was not completed, it has left quite an impressionable mark on the entire complex. 

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Palace of Charles V

From the mid-16th century onward, the Alhambra was virtually abandoned until the 19th century when it was re-discovered by British intellectuals. Since then, the site has benefited greatly from reconstruction works done on it after centuries of neglect and disrepair.  

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Musings

Muslim Spain is a great example of how artistic achievements can transcend differing religious outlooks. Even though the Islamic presence in Iberia precipitated a clash of civilisations between Islam and Christendom,  the Christian kingdoms still kept certain remnants of al-Andalus. Some of these Muslim feats of architecture and culture, with the Alhambra being the best example, have left indelible marks on Spanish and Portuguese culture. In turn, this has provided both Spanish and Portuguese culture with an extra layer of richness that is now being utilised to help the countries materially, in the shape of tourism.  


* The Reconquista – the resistance of the Catholic kingdoms of the northern Iberia towards Muslim rule, started almost as soon as the Muslims took power in 718 and ended with the fall of the final Muslim stronghold of Granada in 1492.


Check out our YouTube video on the Alhambra!


All these amazing pictures have been provided courtesy of EduArtGranada, a talented artist from Granada – go check him out on

Instagram @eduartgranada

His website www.eduartgranada.com