Mahmud of Ghazni was born in 971 AD and became the greatest ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire which stretched from Western Iran to Northern India. Coming to power in 998 AD, he went on to be the first ever ‘Sultan’, a title he assumed in order to assert his political authority. At the same time he observed the spiritual authority of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad, at a time when the Caliph’s authority was significantly less important than before; but Mahmud didn’t necessarily do this out of the goodness of his heart – gaining the religious legitimacy of the Caliphate strengthened his call for a Jihad against the Hindu kingdoms of the Indian Subcontinent.
The booty and riches taken from a total of 17 expeditions to the Subcontinent allowed him to establish Ghazni as an imperial city which could attract scholars such as Ferdowsi and al-Biruni. The latter actually accompanied Mahmud on one of his expeditions to India and was able gain a lot of knowledge in a range of subjects that the Indians had excelled in (e.g. Astronomy and Mathematics), ultimately compiling his knowledge in an encyclopedia of sorts on India.
Mahmud’s invasions of India played a decisive role in expanding Islam in to the Indian Subcontinent (the earlier Umayyads had only conquered up to Sindh). He has since been heavily criticised for his religious policies, especially amongst Indian Hindus. But despite his yearly raids on Hindu kingdoms and stripping the Temples of their materials, Mahmud was much more of a pragmatist than he is often given credit for. His army included Hindus who were allowed to observe their own religion. He didn’t even bother imposing the Jizya tax on his non-Muslim subjects. I mean he even had a male lover! Today he is considered a national hero in Afghanistan, where his capital Ghazni is situated.
Have you seen our latest video on the Battle that could’ve made Europe Muslim?
One of the most visually stunning piece of Mughal architecture – with its capacity of 56,000, the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore has been amongst the largest mosques in the world since its completion in 1673. The austere Aurangzeb had it built to commemorate his victory over Shivaji, the king of the nascent Maratha’s. Little did the Mughal Emperor know Shivaji’s descendants would return and wage a war that would prove instrumental to the Mughal Empire’s decline in the 18th century.
Construction began in 1671 on the orders of Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the last of the great Mughals, thus explaining the name – the ‘Emperor’s Mosque’. The task of overseeing the construction was left to Aurangzeb’s foster brother, Fidai Khan Koka who was also the governor of Lahore at the time. It bears a resemblance to Delhi’s Jama Masjid built during Aurangzeb’s father, Shah Jahan’s, reign.
Despite its magnificence, it has experienced some dark days. When the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh took the city in 1799 and made it their capital, the Badshahi Mosque’s courtyard was used as a stable for army horses and the mosque’s interior was used as living quarters for the soldiers and to store ammunition. At one point there was a Sikh civil war, during which the Mosque was used as an artillery position to besiege the nearby Lahore Fort!
The British continued the Sikh practise of using it as a military garrison before increasing Muslim resentment forced their hand in establishing the Badshahi Mosque Authority, which aimed to restore the monument to its former glory. But these repairs would prove to be piecemeal and not enough to reverse the decades of neglect; it was not until the middle of the 20th century when funds raised under the auspices of Sikander Hayat Khan were used to make monumental repairs to this impressive feat of architecture.
Check out our YouTube video on the Badshahi Mosque: