Badshahi Mosque

Badshahi 2

One of the most visually stunning piece of Mughal architecture – with its capacity of 56,000, the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore has been amongst the largest mosques in the world since its completion in 1673. The austere Aurangzeb had it built to commemorate his victory over Shivaji, the king of the nascent Maratha’s. Little did the Mughal Emperor know Shivaji’s descendants would return and wage a war that would prove instrumental to the Mughal Empire’s decline in the 18th century.

Construction began in 1671 on the orders of Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the last of the great Mughals, thus explaining the name – the ‘Emperor’s Mosque’. The task of overseeing the construction was left to Aurangzeb’s foster brother, Fidai Khan Koka who was also the governor of Lahore at the time. It bears a resemblance to Delhi’s Jama Masjid built during Aurangzeb’s father, Shah Jahan’s, reign.

Badshahi 1880s

Despite its magnificence, it has experienced some dark days. When the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh took the city in 1799 and made it their capital, the Badshahi Mosque’s courtyard was used as a stable for army horses and the mosque’s interior was used as living quarters for the soldiers and to store ammunition. At one point there was a Sikh civil war, during which the Mosque was used as an artillery position to besiege the nearby Lahore Fort!

The British continued the Sikh practise of using it as a military garrison before increasing Muslim resentment forced their hand in establishing the Badshahi Mosque Authority, which aimed to restore the monument to its former glory. But these repairs would prove to be piecemeal and not enough to reverse the decades of neglect; it was not until the middle of the 20th century when funds raised under the auspices of Sikander Hayat Khan were used to make monumental repairs to this  impressive feat of architecture.

Check out our YouTube video on the Badshahi Mosque:

Alhambra

 

18 General view
General view of the Alhambra

Biography

The magnificent palace-fortress complex of the Alhambra had very humble origins. A small fortress had existed in its place since at least as early as 889 AD and was most likely built on the site of Roman fortifications – the continuity of the site’s usage demonstrates its strategic location, being situated on top of a hill overlooking the city of Granada. It came to be known as ‘Qalat Al-Hamra’, or the ‘Red Fortress’, most likely due to the red bricks used in its construction.

19 Comares Palace Courtyard

It fell into obscurity until the mid 11th century when Samuel ibn Naghrela (994-1056), a Jewish vizier to the Emir of Granada, reconstructed and made it his residence. Samuel was succeeded as vizier by his son Joseph who further expanded the fortress out of fear inspired by the rising anti-Semitism in the taifa of Granada (see 1066 Massacre of Granada). Ironically, when the Christian kingdoms completed the Reconquista* in 1492, the Edict of Expulsion, which forced the Jewish population of Spain to leave the country, was signed in 1492 in the Alhambra – the same place which owed at least part of its roots to Spanish Jewry. 

3 GENERALIFE GARDENS.jpg

The current shape of the Alhambra is owed to the rulers of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada who transformed it into a royal palace. From the mid-13th century onward the Alhambra was expanded and embellished to its current grandeur over the course of the next century and a half. These improvements included the famous Patio of the Lions, the Baths and extension of some of the towers.   

20 Lions Courtyard
Lion’s Courtyard

When Granada fell to the Catholic Monarchs, the Alhambra retained its place of prominence as it became the site of their royal residence and was even the place where Christopher Columbus received royal support for his expedition to the New World. Charles V, Emperor of the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, was keen to place a Christian imprint on this feat of Islamic architecture and decided to build a palace which required the removal of some aspects of the original complex. Although the palace was not completed, it has left quite an impressionable mark on the entire complex. 

16 Palace Charles V
Palace of Charles V

From the mid-16th century onward, the Alhambra was virtually abandoned until the 19th century when it was re-discovered by British intellectuals. Since then, the site has benefited greatly from reconstruction works done on it after centuries of neglect and disrepair.  

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Musings

Muslim Spain is a great example of how artistic achievements can transcend differing religious outlooks. Even though the Islamic presence in Iberia precipitated a clash of civilisations between Islam and Christendom,  the Christian kingdoms still kept certain remnants of al-Andalus. Some of these Muslim feats of architecture and culture, with the Alhambra being the best example, have left indelible marks on Spanish and Portuguese culture. In turn, this has provided both Spanish and Portuguese culture with an extra layer of richness that is now being utilised to help the countries materially, in the shape of tourism.  


* The Reconquista – the resistance of the Catholic kingdoms of the northern Iberia towards Muslim rule, started almost as soon as the Muslims took power in 718 and ended with the fall of the final Muslim stronghold of Granada in 1492.


All these amazing pictures have been provided courtesy of EduArtGranada, a talented artist from Granada – go check him out on

Instagram @eduartgranada

His website www.eduartgranada.com